Overview

Impact on Sexual Violence and Exploitation

 

  • Hardcore Pornography Portrays Paraphilic Disorders and Extreme Sex: Since the 1950s, the distribution and availability of pornography has become increasingly normalized.[i] Pornography exposure among college males is now almost universal.[ii] Boys and men are consuming hardcore pornography, which may include depictions of sex with persons who look like children, teens, scenarios portraying incest, and other paraphilic interests such as sex with animals (i.e. zoophilia), excretory activities (i.e. coprophilia/urophilia), and violence against women, including rape (i.e. biastophilia) and torture (i.e. algolania).[iii] Today “. . . mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation.”[iv]

 

  • Teaches Users that Women Enjoy Sexual Violence: Analysis of the 50 most popular pornographic videos (those bought and rented most often) found that 88% of scenes contained physical violence, and 49% contained verbal aggression.[v] Eighty-seven percent of aggressive acts were perpetrated against women, and 95% of their responses were either neutral or expressions of pleasure.[vi]

 

  • Committing Sexual Offenses and Accepting Rape Myths: A meta-analysis of 46 studies reported that the effects of exposure to pornographic material are “clear and consistent,” and that pornography use puts people at increased risk for committing sexual offenses and accepting rape myths.[vii]

 

  • Increased Verbal and Physical Aggression: A 2015 meta-analysis of 22 studies from seven countries found that internationally the consumption of pornography was significantly associated with increases in verbal and physical aggression, among males and females alike.[viii]

 

  • Increased Female Sexual Victimization: A study of 14- to 19-year-olds found that females who watched pornographic videos were at significantly greater likelihood of being victims of sexual harassment or sexual assault.[ix]

 

  • Increased Likelihood of Selling and Buying Sex: A Swedish study of 18-year-old males found that frequent users of pornography were significantly more likely to have sold and bought sex than other boys of the same age.[x]

 

  • Porn Fuels Demand for Sexual Exploitation: Some pornography consumers use pornography to build sexual excitement in advance of purchasing sex from prostituted persons; others seek to reenact pornographic scenes on prostituted persons.[xi] An analysis of 101 sex buyers, compared to 100 men who did not buy sex, found that sex buyers masturbate to pornography more often than non-sex buyers, masturbate to more types of pornography, and reported that their sexual preferences changed so that they sought more sadomasochistic and anal sex.[xii] Other research also demonstrates an association between purchase of commercial sex acts and pornography use.[xiii]

 

  • Interconnectivity of Mainstream, Deviant, and Child Sexual Abuse Images: A survey from a general population of Internet pornography users found that users of pornography depicting sexual abuse of children also consume both hardcore pornography (featuring ostensibly adult performers), as well animal pornography. There were no consumers of child sexual abuse images who only collected child sexual abuse images. [xiv]
  • A study examining 231 Swiss men charged in a 2002 case for possession of child sexual abuse images (i.e. child pornography), found that 60% percent also used pornography that depicted sexual acts with animals, excrement, or brutality; 33% consumed at least three or more types of deviant pornography. Researchers also found that those convicted for possessing child sexual abuse images were more likely to subscribe to commercial websites containing legal (according to Swiss law) pornographic material (19% vs. 4%). [xv]

 

  • Pornography is Prostitution for Mass Consumption: The medium by which the prostitution is conveyed—photographs, magazines, books, videos, and the Internet—allows for masses of individuals to derive sexual stimulation and gratification from the acts of prostitution that they portray.

 

  • Pornography as a Form of Sexual Exploitation: “Pornography may meet the legal definition of trafficking to the extent that the pornographer recruits, entices, or obtains the people depicted in pornography for the purpose of photographing commercial sex acts.”[xvi]

[i] Gail Dines, Pornland: How Porn Has Hijacked Our Sexuality, (Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 2010), 1–23.

[ii] John D. Foubert, Matthew W. Brosi, and R. Sean Bannon, “Effects of Fraternity Men’s Pornography Use on Bystander Intervention, Rape Myth Acceptance and Behavioral Intent to Commit Sexual Assault,” Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention 18, no. 4 (2011): 212–231.

[iii] Robert Peters, “How Adult Pornography Contributes to Sexual Exploitation of Children” (September 2009); Foubert, ibid; Ana Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun, and Rachael Liberman, “Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update,” Violence Against Women 16, no. 10 (2010): 1065-1085; Gail Dines, ibid.

[iv] Sun, ibid.

[v] Ana J. Bridges, Robert Wosnitzer, Erica Scharrer, Chyng Sun, and Rachael Liberman, “Aggression and Sexual Behavior in Best-Selling Pornography Videos: A Content Analysis Update,” Violence against Women 16, no. 10 (2010): 1065–1085.

[vi] Ibid.

[vii] Elizabeth Paolucci-Oddone, Mark Genuis, and Claudio Violato, “A Meta-Analysis of the Published Research on the Effects of Pornography,” The Changing Family and Child Development, ed. Claudio Violato, Elizabeth Paolucci, and Mark Genuis (Aldershot, England: Ashgate Publishing, 2000), 48–59.

[viii] Paul J. Wright, Robert S. Tokunaga, and Ashley Kraus, “A Meta-Analysis of Pornography Consumption and Actual Acts of Sexual Aggression in General Population Studies,” Journal of Communication 66, no. 1 (February 2016): 183–205.

[ix] Silvia Bonino, Silvia Ciairano, Emanuela Rabagliette, and Elena Cattelino, “Use of Pornography and Self-Reported Engagement in Sexual Violence among Adolescents,” European Journal of Developmental Psychology 3, no. 3 (2006):265-288.

[x] Carl Göran Svedin, Ingrid Âkerman, and Gisela Priebe, “Frequent Users of Pornography. A Population Based Epidemiological Study of Swedish Male Adolescents,” Journal of Adolescence 34, no. 4 (2011): 779–788.

[xi] Mimi H. Silbert and Ayala M. Pines, “Pornography and Sexual Abuse of Women,” Sex Roles 10, no. 11/12 (1984): 857–868; Rachel Durchslag and Samir Goswami, Deconstructing the Demand for Prostitution: Preliminary Insights from Interviews with Chicago Men Who Purchase Sex, (Chicago, IL: Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation, 2008); Victor Malarek, The Johns: Sex for Sale and the Men Who Buy It (New York: NY Arcade Publishing, Inc. 2009).

[xii] Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, “Comparing Sex Buyers with Men Who Don’t Buy Sex: ‘You can have a good time with the servitude’ vs. ‘You’re supporting a system of degradation.’” Paper presented at Psychologists for Social Responsibility Annual Meeting July 15, 2011, Boston, MA. San Francisco: Prostitution Research & Education (2011).

[xiii] Steven Stack, Ira Wasserman, and Roger Kern, “Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography,” Social Science Quarterly 85 (2004): 75–88; Martin A. Monto and Nick McRee, “A Comparison of the Male Customers of Female Street Prostitutes With National Samples of Men,” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 49, no. 5 (2005): 505–529; Martin A. Monto, “Summary Report for National Institute of Justice Grant #97-IJ-CX-0033 ‘Focusing on the Clients of Street Prostitutes: A Creative Approach to Reducing Violence Against Women’” (October 30, 1999); Durchslag, ibid.

[xiv] Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar and Marcus K. Rogers, “Does Deviant Pornography Use Follow a Guttman-like Progression,” Computers in Human Behavior 29 (2013): 1997–2003.

[xv] Jérôme Endrass, Frank Urbaniok, Lea C. Hammermeister, Christian Benz, Thomas Elbert, Arja Laubacher, and Astrid Rossegger, “The Consumption of Internet Child Pornography and Violent and Sex Offending,” BMC Psychiatry 9, no. 43 (2009).

[xvi] Melissa Farley, Jacqueline M. Golding, Emily Schuckman Matthews, Neil Malamuth, and Laura Jarrett, “Comparing Sex Buyers with Men Who Do Not Buy Sex: New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking.” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, (2015).

By Category

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
  2. Believing women suffer less from rape
  3. Believing women in general enjoy rape
  4. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
  5. Believing women make false accusations of rape
  6. Believing rapist deserve less jail time
  7. More acceptance of the rape myth
  8. More acceptance of violence against women
  9. More adversarial sex beliefs
  10. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  11. More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
  12. More self-reported likelihood of rape
  13. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
  14. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
  15. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
  16. More likelihood of future rape
  17. Using physical coercion to have sex
  18. Using verbal coercion to have sex
  19. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
  20. Having engaged in rape
  21. Having engaged in date rape
  22. Having engaged in marital rape
  23. Being an adult sex offender
  24. Being a child molester
  25. Being an incest offender
  26. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
  27. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
  28. More sexual attraction to children
  29. Having sexually abused children

Studies supporting these points

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing women suffer less from rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

  1. Believing women in general enjoy rape

 

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”

 

Millburn, M., Mather, R. & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape.  Sex Roles, 43, Nov 2000, 645-664.

 

 

  1. Believing women make false accusations of rape

 

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing rapist deserve less jail time

 

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More acceptance of the rape myth

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

  1. More acceptance of violence against women

 

Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5-26.

 

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

Hald, G., Malamuth, N. & Yuen, C. (2010).  Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in non experimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.

 

 

  1. More adversarial sex beliefs

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence

 

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

 

 

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of rape

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of forced sex acts

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused

 

Malamuth, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.

 

  1. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors

 

Barak, A., Fisher, W.A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys, and cyberspace: Effects of internet pornography and individual differences on men’s attitudes toward women. Journal of Psychological and Human Sexuality, 11, 63-92.

 

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography

in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

 

  1. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. More likelihood of future rape

 

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Using physical coercion to have sex

 

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

 

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

  1. Using verbal coercion to have sex

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Having engaged in rape

 

Baron, L. & Straus, M. (1984). Sexual stratification, pornography, and rape in the United States. In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  New York: Academic Press.

 

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

 

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

Malamuth, N., Addison, T. & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26-68.

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography

in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

 

  1. Having engaged in date rape

 

Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York, Harper and Row.

 

  1. Having engaged in marital rape

 

Simmons, C. A, Lehmann, P & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Violence against Women, 14,  406-417.

 

  1. Being an adult sex offender

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

 

  1. Being a child molester

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

 

 

  1. Being an incest offender

 

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse

 

Shope, J. (2004). When words are not enough: The search for the effect of pornography on abused women. Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 56-72.

 

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

 

  1. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds

 

Hegna, H., Mossige, S. & Wichstrom, L. (2004). Older adolescents’ positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners. Adolescence, 39, 156, 627-651.

 

 

  1. More sexual attraction to children

 

Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1989). University males sexual interest in children: Predicting potential indices of “pedophilia” in a nonforensic sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 65-75.

 

Smiljanich, K. & Briere, J. (1996). Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample. Violence and Victims. 11, 1, 39-50.

 

  1. Having sexually abused children

 

Bourke, M. & Hernandez, A.  (2009). The Butner study redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 183-191.

 

Carter, D. L., Prentky. R. A., Knight, R. A. & Vanderveer, P. L. (1987). Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sex offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 2, 196-211.

 

Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., Bradford, J. M. (2008) Pornography use and sexual aggression: The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 4, 341-351.

 

Proulx, J., Perreault, C. & Ouimet, M.  (1999). Pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters.  Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 2, 117-129.

 

Seto, M. & Eke, A. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 2, 201-210.

 

Wheeler, D. L. (1997). The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 57(8-A), pp. 3691.

Adult (>18 years old) exposure to pornographic media is connected with:

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape
  2. Believing women suffer less from rape
  3. Believing women in general enjoy rape
  4. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”
  5. Believing women make false accusations of rape
  6. Believing rapist deserve less jail time
  7. More acceptance of the rape myth
  8. More acceptance of violence against women
  9. More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently
  10. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence
  11. More self-reported likelihood of forcing a women sexually
  12. More self-reported likelihood of rape
  13. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused
  14. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors
  15. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually
  16. More likelihood of future rape
  17. Using physical coercion to have sex
  18. Using verbal coercion to have sex
  19. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women
  20. Having engaged in rape
  21. Having engaged in date rape
  22. Having engaged in marital rape
  23. Being an adult sex offender
  24. Being a child molester
  25. Being an incest offender
  26. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse
  27. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds
  28. More sexual attraction to children
  29. Having sexually abused children

Studies Supporting These Points

  1. Believing a rape victim enjoyed rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing women suffer less from rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

 

  1. Believing women in general enjoy rape

Check, J. & Malamuth, N. (1985). An empirical assessment of some feminist hypotheses about rape. International Journal of Women’s Studies, 8, 414-423.

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing a rape victim experienced pleasure and “got what she wanted”

Millburn, M., Mather, R. & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape.  Sex Roles, 43, Nov 2000, 645-664.

 

  1. Believing women make false accusations of rape

Ohbuchi, K. Ikeda, T. & Takeuchi, G. (1994). Effects of violent pornography upon viewers rape myth beliefs: A study of Japanese males. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 71-81.

 

  1. Believing rapist deserve less jail time

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More acceptance of the rape myth

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

 

  1. More acceptance of violence against women

Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5-26.

Weisz, M.G., & Earls, C. M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.

Hald, G., Malamuth, N. & Yuen, C. (2010).  Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women: revisiting the relationship in non experimental studies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 14-20.

 

  1. More likely to go to a prostitute and to go more frequently

Monto, M. (1999). Focusing on the clients of street prostitutes: a creative approach to reducing violence against women. Final report for the National Institute of Justice. Available at www.ncjrs.org.

Stack, S., Wasserman, I. & Kern, R. (2004). Adult Social Bonds and Use of Internet Pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75-88.

 

  1. Increasing their estimates of how often people engage in sex with violence

Zillmann, D & J. Bryant. (1984). Effects of massive exposure to pornography. In Malamuth, N and Donnerstein, E. (Eds), Pornography and sexual aggression. San Diego, Academic Press.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of rape

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. More self-reported likelihood of forced sex acts

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Creating more sexually violent fantasies to get aroused

Malamuth, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of exposure to violent sexual stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47.

 

  1. Engaging in more sexual harassment behaviors

Barak, A., Fisher, W.A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys, and cyberspace: Effects of internet pornography and individual differences on men’s attitudes toward women. Journal of Psychological and Human Sexuality, 11, 63-92.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Brown, J. & L’Engle, K. (2009). X-Rated: Sexual attitudes and behaviors associated with U.S. early adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit media. Communication Research, 36, 129-151.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

  1. More likelihood of forcing a woman sexually

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. More likelihood of future rape

Check. J. V. P., & Guloien, T. H. (1989). The effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryan (Eds.), Pornography: Recent research, interpretations, and policy considerations (pp. 159-184). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

  1. Using physical coercion to have sex

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

 

  1. Using verbal coercion to have sex

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Using drugs and alcohol to sexually coerce women

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

 

  1. Having engaged in rape

Alexy, E., Burgess, A. & Prentky, R. (2009).  Pornography use as a risk marker for an aggressive pattern of behavior among sexually reactive children and adolescents. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14, 442-453.

Baron, L. & Straus, M. (1984). Sexual stratification, pornography, and rape in the United States. In N. Malamuth and E. Donnerstein (Eds) Pornography and Sexual Aggression.  New York: Academic Press.

Boeringer, S.B. (1994). Pornography and sexual aggression: Associations of violent and nonviolent depictions with rape and rape proclivity. Deviant Behavior, 15, 289-304.

Bonino, S., Ciairano, S. Rabaglietti, E. & Cattelino, E. (2006). Use of pornography and self-reported engagement in sexual violence among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 3, 3, 265-288.

Carr, J. & VanDeusen, K. (2004). Risk factors for male sexual aggression on college campuses.  Journal of Family Violence, 19, 279-289.

Cramer, E. & McFarlane, J. (1994). Pornography and abuse of women. Public Health Nursing, 11, 4, 268-272.

Crossman, L. (1995). Date rape and sexual aggression by college males: Incidence and the involvement of impulsivity, anger, hostility, psychopathology, peer influence and pornography use. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 55, 4640

Malamuth, N., Addison, T. & Koss, M. (2000). Pornography and sexual aggression: Are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Annual Review of Sex Research, 11, 26-68.

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

Senn, C. (1993). The research on women and pornography: The many faces of harm. In D. E. H. Russell (Ed.), Making violence sexy. New York: Teachers College Press.

Vega, V. & Malamuth, N. (2007).  Predicting sexual aggression: The role of pornography in the context of general and specific risk factors. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 104–117.

 

  1. Having engaged in date rape

Warshaw, R. (1988). I never called it rape. New York, Harper and Row.

 

  1. Having engaged in marital rape

Simmons, C. A, Lehmann, P & Collier-Tenison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships. Violence against Women, 14,  406-417.

 

  1. Being an adult sex offender

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Being a child molester

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Being an incest offender

Marshall, W. L. (1988). The use of sexually explicit stimuli by rapists, child molesters and non-offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 2, 267-288.

 

  1. Engaging in sexual abuse of a battered spouse

Shope, J. (2004). When words are not enough: The search for the effect of pornography on abused women. Violence Against Women, 10, 1, 56-72.

Simmons, C. A., Lehmann, P. & Collier-Tennison, S. (2008). Linking male use of the sex industry to controlling behaviors in violent relationships: An exploratory analysis. Violence Against Women, 14, 406-417.

Sommers, E. K. & Check, J. V. P. (1987). An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the verbal and physical abuse of women. Violence and Victims, 2, 1, 189-209.

 

  1. More willingness to have sex with 13-14 year olds

Hegna, H., Mossige, S. & Wichstrom, L. (2004). Older adolescents’ positive attitudes toward younger adolescents as sexual partners. Adolescence, 39, 156, 627-651.

 

  1. More sexual attraction to children

Briere, J. & Runtz, M. (1989). University males sexual interest in children: Predicting potential indices of “pedophilia” in a nonforensic sample. Child Abuse and Neglect, 13, 65-75.

Smiljanich, K. & Briere, J. (1996). Self-reported sexual interest in children: Sex differences and psychosocial correlates in a university sample. Violence and Victims. 11, 1, 39-50.

 

  1. Having sexually abused children

Bourke, M. & Hernandez, A.  (2009). The Butner study redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 183-191.

Carter, D. L., Prentky. R. A., Knight, R. A. & Vanderveer, P. L. (1987). Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sex offenders.Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 2, 196-211.

Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., Bradford, J. M. (2008) Pornography use and sexual aggression: The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 4, 341-351.

Proulx, J., Perreault, C. & Ouimet, M.  (1999). Pathways in the offending process of extrafamilial sexual child molesters.  Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 11, 2, 117-129.

Seto, M. & Eke, A. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 17, 2, 201-210.

Wheeler, D. L. (1997). The relationship between pornography usage and child molesting. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol 57(8-A), pp. 3691.

  • The International Labor Organization (ILO)–the United Nations (UN) agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues–estimates there are 12.3 million people in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, and sexual servitude at any given time; other estimates range from 4 million to 27 million (Trafficking in Persons Report. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2006).
  • Each year sexual traffickers lure, coerce, trick, drug, kidnap, and sell millions of vulnerable women and children into the multi-billion dollar sex trade. In their daily lives victims of sexual trafficking endure unspeakable acts of physical brutality, violence and degradation including rape by so-called customers and pimps; undergo forced abortions; acquire drug and alcohol dependencies; live in fear of their lives and in fear for the lives of their family and friends; suffer acute psychological reactions as a result of their extreme physical and emotional trauma; and contract sexually transmitted diseases which all too often bring life-long illness or hasten death. If they survive, the physical, psychological and spiritual impacts of these experiences on victims are devastating and enduring (Initiative Against Sexual Trafficking, Accessed October 31, 2007).
  • UNICEF reports that across the world, there are over one million children entering the sex trade every year and that approximately 30 million children have lost their childhood through sexual exploitation over the past 30 years (Commercial sexual exploitation position statement. UNICEF UK. 2004, January 28).
  • From fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005, the Civil Rights Division and United States Attorney’s Offices filed 91 trafficking cases, a 405% increase over the number of trafficking cases filed from fiscal years 1996 through 2000. In these cases, Department attorneys charged 248 trafficking defendants, a 210% increase over the previous five fiscal years. In addition, 140 defendants of trafficking related crimes were convicted, a 109% increase over the previous five years (U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. 2006, February).
  • Foremost among the health risks of prostitution is premature death. In a recent US study of almost 2,000 prostitutes followed over a 30-year period, by far the most common causes of death were homicide, suicide, drug and alcohol related problems, HIV infection and accidents – in that order. The homicide rate among active female prostitutes was 17 times higher than that of the age-matched general population (Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2004, July 24).
  • Among children and teens living on the streets in the United States, involvement in commercial sex activity is a problem of epidemic proportion. Approximately 55% of street girls engage in formal prostitution (Department of Justice, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. Accessed October 31, 2007).
  • Studies indicate that child prostitutes serve between two and thirty clients per week, leading to a shocking estimated base of anywhere between 100 to 1500 clients per year, per child. Younger children, many below the age of 10, have been increasingly drawn into serving tourists (Department of Justice, Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section. Accessed October 31, 2007)
  • $19 Billion generated annually on the street from human trafficking (Christine Dolan, The Global Coalition to End Human Trafficking NOW).
  • According to “The Global Coalition To End Human Trafficking Now” 10 Million child sex trafficking victims worldwide.
  • $19 Billion generated annually on the street from human trafficking (Christine Dolan, The Global Coalition to End Human Trafficking NOW).
  • Internet pedophiles are increasingly adopting counter-intelligence techniques to protect themselves from being traced (National Criminal Intelligence Service, 8/21/03).
  • Forty percent of people charged with child pornography also sexually abuse children, police say. But finding the predators and identifying the victims are daunting tasks (Reuters, 2003).
  • One in five children who use computer chatrooms has been approached over the Internet by pedophiles. (Detective Chief Superintendent Keith Akerman, Telegraph.co.uk January 2002).
  • 13 million youth use Instant Messaging. (Pew Study reported in JAMA, 6/01).
  • 1 in 5 received sexual solicitation or approach in last year. (Online Victimization, NCMEC, June 2000).
  • 1 in 33 received AGGRESSIVE sexual solicitation (asked to meet, called them via phone, sent mail, money or gifts). (Online Victimization, NCMEC, June 2000)
  • 25% of youth who received sexual solicitation told a parent. (Online Victimization, NCMEC, June 2000).
  • 1 in 4 kids participate in Real Time Chat. (FamilyPC Survey, 2000).

Articles

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The Brock Turner Rule: Recognizing the Links Between Pornography and Rape

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The Porn Phenomenon and Why You Should Care – Groundbreaking Research

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This Disturbing Side Effect of Porn Will Make You Reconsider Using It – New Study

We live in a society that places an emphasis on preventing harmful behaviors. Smoking is no longer allowed in most public buildings, and public service announcements warn us about unhealthy diets. From seat belts to drunk driving laws, our society works to reduce the harmful impact of risky acts. Except when it comes to porn. Porn […]

Sexual Violence Behind the Scenes: Porn Star Accused of Rape

The porn industry just lost another golden boy. James Deen, a porn actor with “boy next door” charm, has long been a rising star in the porn community. In 2009, Adult Video News named him “Male Performer of the Year.” Esquire has labeled him the “Ryan Gosling of porn,” and Elle praised his support for female sexuality. Even Buzzfeed profiled Deen, […]

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Porn addiction is a widespread epidemic. As scientists study this phenomenon, their findings continue to confirm the fact that porn use plays a very definite part in attitudinal and behavioral actions in various situations. One of the ways that pornography influences behavior and attitude is the way people respond in a situation of sexual assault. […]

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AG Holder admits links between porn and trafficking, child porn, violence against women

Sexual Exploitation: Connecting the Dots in Real Life | Ed Smart | US Capitol Symposium

Sexual Obesity: Research on a Public Health Crisis

Today’s Pornography and the Crisis of Violence Against Women and Children | Gail Dines, Ph.D.

Growing Up in a Pornified Culture | Gail Dines | TEDxNave

Dawn Hawkins on the public health crisis from pornography

A Public Health Approach to Pornography

Long Term Consequences of Pornography Use: Overview of Research

Sex, Identity and Intimacy in a Porn Culture

Other Harms